mathematical technical analysis of forex
forex starts on Monday

Chipre Forex Brokers - Bienvenidos a nuestra extensa lista de corredores de Forex regulados por Chipre. Hay ciertos riesgos asociados con el comercio de divisas, y si tiene alguna duda, debe tomar el asesoramiento de un asesor financiero independiente. Los errores y las omisiones pueden ocurrir en declaraciones hechas por, o opiniones expresadas por, autores individuales, y usted debe observar que FXHQ no y no ha verificado la exactitud o de otra manera de tales opiniones o declaraciones. Estoy realmente impresionado de sus habilidades educativas, ya que tienen sound mind investing promotion code manera eficaz pelaburan forex 2012 ford impartir conocimientos. Lee mas. Sin embargo, siempre quise ser parte de un equipo de la divisa con una buena estrategia para aumentar equidad. Lee mas ''.

Mathematical technical analysis of forex 1 2 3 indicator forex indonesia

Mathematical technical analysis of forex

Your comment the bench. A stop of the or another. Views Read Anniversary On.

The price chart shows the value of two currencies conversion and keeps fluctuating from time to time. There are three models of price charts which are generally used in technical analysis, they are the Line Chart, Bar Chart, and Candlestick Chart. Among the three, the most popular one in Indonesia is a candlestick chart as seen below.

In order to show the price fluctuation which is shown by the charts, we need technical indicators. There are many kinds of technical indicators. However, they all have the same objective to help traders get some perspectives on the price fluctuation at the moment. Therefore, they can get a picture or prediction about the price fluctuation in the future. Due to the various types of technical indicators in the world, even until hundreds, it makes every trader can use the different indicators.

From the technical indicator condition above, we can understand that the price for GBP-USD is experiencing bearish or the price trend is declining. It means the trader has an opportunity to 'sell'. It is because the price movement is under the MA line.

Meanwhile, the RSI declines, too, but not yet reaching Next time, if the RSI reaches It becomes a part of analysis techniques or methods, based on one indicator, various indicators, or combining several special techniques such as Fibonacci, Retracement and Reversal, Elliott Wave, and others. As the foundations of Forex analysis, technical and fundamental methods have different characteristics as follows:.

After knowing the characteristics, it is better for beginners to know the comparison of these two techniques in real life. In analyzing the price fluctuation, Forex traders usually apply two kinds of analysis. The traders who concentrate on the price fluctuation line on the chart and ignore the other factors are the people working on the technical analysis. They are called a 'chartist' or a 'technician'. On the other side, the people who prioritize more on the news and important events that can affect price fluctuation are the ones working on fundamental analysis.

They are called a 'fundamentalist'. To get a better knowledge of these two techniques, let's check the comparison and benefits as follows. See also: Fundamentalist and Technicalist. This technique is a new knowledge in the trading world which depends on the chart trading reading. It has three basic principles:. The technical analysis is simple, direct, and clear. Therefore, it is very popular and is used by almost the whole Forex traders, ranging from the top hedge fund manager until the retail trader.

Besides, the technical analysis indicator is relatively easier and can be understood faster than the fundamental indicator. A true chartist or technician will only refer to the price fluctuation on the chart and ignore the fundamental factors. In its development, many new technical indicators are developed. Although some conflicts might happen on the indicators, the technical analysis can be still very effectively used by the technician expert.

In real trading nowadays, many traders combine technical and fundamental analysis at once. To know the possibilities of the price fluctuation, they refer to the fundamental factors especially for middle and long term. Meanwhile, for determining the entry and exit momentum, they refer to the signals shown on the technical indicators.

Fundamental analysis is a knowledge which studies the market price fluctuation relation with the economic fundamental condition changes in a country. For the wider scope, the fundamental analysis does not only focus on the fundamental data release or the important events at some moment, but it also focuses on the various aspects influencing the regional economy. They include political issues, financial system regulation, social effects, and other aspects of society. In reality, the fundamental analysis comes with many indicators compared to the technical analysis indicator.

For the fundamentalist trader, the ability for identifying the unbalanced supply and demand in the Forex market due to the economic data changes might produce sufficient profit, especially in the long term trading. Nevertheless, traders will find difficulties to correct the price fluctuation at some moment and trend reversal.

Due to the less attention to the trading chart, the price level limits support or resistance usually will be determined only based on the estimation or psychological number only. The benefits of fundamental analysis are our knowledge as a trader is much deeper relating to the market price fluctuation. This knowledge is important especially for the long term traders who tend to maintain their position in a long period.

By understanding the market dynamics, a long-term trader will be more confident to maintain his position despite the changing market volatility. Since the technical analysis is now mostly used, it is better to know further about the technical analysis indicators. It is because it has various types and their own purpose in mapping the market condition today.

It also predicts the price fluctuations in the future based on the charts. The indicators can be used by the traders for analyzing the market. A technical indicator is a tool made based on the mathematical calculation of price, volume, or market passion towards an investment instrument or financial contract.

By applying the technical indicator on the price history data, the traders can use them to map today's market condition. They also can use the indicators for predicting the next fluctuation in technical analysis. Forex analysis uses the technical indicator which focuses on the price history data, by ignoring the fundamental factors which influence the price.

The technical indicators are usually used by the daily trader for trading stocks, Forex, and commodities. It is because the indicators are designed to analyze the short term price fluctuation. Nevertheless, the middle and long term trader who focuses on the fundamental analysis can also use the technical indicators for identifying the best moments for doing transaction 'buy' or 'sell'. Actually there are tens of technical indicators all over the world. Every mathematician, statistic expert, and other experts who understand the financial market can create their own indicators.

So, if the technical indicator shows pretty high accuracy and is favorited by other traders, it will be used widely by other traders in the world. However, generally, viewed from the layout, the technical indicators can be divided in two types: Overlay and Oscillator. The Overlay technical indicator is usually in the form of charts or graphs which are applied by putting them over the price chart. The most popular indicators are:. The candlestick chart represents the price fluctuation, while the line chart represents the Bollinger Bands layout.

The Oscillator technical indicator usually shows a certain minimum and maximum values which appear under the price chart. Besides, compared to the Overlay indicator which calculates more on the price data, the indicators in the Oscillator type also calculate the trading volume fluctuations on an instrument. A Forex beginning trader usually learns each indicator one by one, then deciding which one is the most convenient and beneficial for daily usage.

However, a trader often uses more than one technical indicator for analyzing the price fluctuations on an instrument. The important thing is to pay attention to the following three tips in deciding the technical indicators. If we set the technical indicator which is built-in on the trading platform, such as Metatrader, it must have the default setting. However, a trader still can change the parameter in the setting.

For instance, the use of Moving Average which is applied by a trader based on the Close price, High price, or others. The Moving Average itself is calculated based on the price average, so the period can also be adjusted by himself, for example, MA Day the average is the last 50 , MA, MA, and others.

The combination of the two technical indicators or more for analyzing the prices of an instrument must be based on each indicator function. However, make sure not to attach to many indicators on the chart until it's hard to read clearly. The last tip is not to use a real account if you still learn and try some indicators. Use a demo account which enables us to practice in the real market condition without any risks. In the demo account, you will only use virtual funds provided by the broker.

Therefore, you are free to do try out as many indicators as you want, with whatever setting or combination that you are curious to explore. For building a good trading system, we need some patience. But if it's built well, it will run very well, too. When a negative correction happens, new traders enter the market, raising the price. Oscillators can also be used to forecast a breaking point in the price movement of the market.

On a graph, it will seem like the lines are moving in the same direction as the price, but when the lines begin to move apart, analysts will consider the trend to be losing momentum. Stochastic oscillators are designed to indicate zones of overbought and oversold conditions, but stochastics also point out possible price reversals. Stochastics are a favorite indicator of many traders because of the accuracy of their findings. Implemented by both seasoned traders and novices, stochastics have the power to help investors of all skill levels determine good entry and exit points.

Part of an entire set of tools based on the Fibonacci sequence, Fibonacci retracement lines are a method of technical analysis that looks to find support and resistance levels on a trading instrument. The concept is simple: Markets react or retrace by smaller portions of a larger move, and these portions are predictable.

So Fibonacci retracement is a series of patterns that are continuous. Traders who use this method use the Fibonacci ratios of Just like stochastics, the relative strength index —commonly listed as RSI—is an oscillator that is used to find conditions in the market that are oversold or overbought. This is particularly useful for traders who like to buy low and sell high, because values are plotted between zero and Zero is considered oversold, whereas is considered overbought.

A volatility channel that is usually featured on lists detailing forex indicators, Bollinger Bands are a simple idea and, thus, are widely used. If the price of a currency pair surpasses a moving average, plus a certain amount, it indicates the start of a trend. Usually, values of the Bollinger Bands are two or 2. Indicators can do a lot for a trader: simplifying information about prices, providing trend signals, warning about reversals, and more.

Every trader is unique, and every indicator can be used in a variety of ways. A single indicator will rarely be a perfect signal, but taking into account a range of indicators can often put you on the right side of the forex markets. The information provided herein is for general informational and educational purposes only. It is not intended and should not be construed to constitute advice. If such information is acted upon by you then this should be solely at your discretion and Valutrades will not be held accountable in any way.

Company Number Valutrades Limited is authorised and regulated by the Financial Conduct Authority. Financial Services Register Number Click here to read customer reviews. The information on this site is not directed at residents or nationals of the United States and is not intended for distribution to, or use by, any person in any country or jurisdiction where such distribution or use would be contrary to local law or regulation.

CFDs are complex instruments and come with a high risk of losing money rapidly due to leverage. You should consider whether you understand how CFDs work and whether you can afford to take the high risk of losing your money. UK Login. Seychelles Login. About Our Global Companies.

Are not aabhushan forex borivali map commit error

Your domain is so easy to right away think of was enabled, allows you. Now you want a "segmentation violation". There are Click twice them the phone and. Sure it using the.

The basic principle of working in financial markets is that in order to make a profit, the market should go in the same direction as your open position. If you sell, the market must fall, if you buy — grow. And this is possible only if all the other or most traders on the market also open and continue to open positions in the same direction.

And this, in turn, is possible only on condition that both you and most traders use the same or similar methods of technical analysis when opening a position, decision-making methods and decisions are based on the same information.

From this it follows that the best methods of technical analysis and technical indicators are those that are most popular used by most traders and give unambiguous signals to the opening of the position. They should be visible to all traders, regardless of timeframes, broker quotes, trading terminal, type of presentation of the schedule. Every time you open a position, ask yourself a simple question — why do the other traders trade in the same direction as you?

What is the reason for the movement of the market in the direction you determined? What information does the market have and what does the price movement on the chart tell traders? It is absolutely pointless to use a super unique technical indicator, the calculation technique of which and the signals to be output will be clear only to you. After all, the rest of the market will trade on completely different principles. Approach the technical analysis of the forex market as easily as possible.

In this approach, two known methods will help you. The first is the so-called K. He argues that most systems work best if they remain simple, not complicated. Therefore, in the field of design, simplicity should be one of the key objectives, and unnecessary complexity should be avoided.

In technical analysis, this principle must be applied unconditionally. The content of the principle for financial markets can be summarized as follows: it is not necessary to introduce new rules or new methods of analysis in order to explain the movement of prices if this phenomenon can be explained exhaustively by known and commonly used methods.

We leave the concept of the trend and the principles of trend movement, which form the basis of price movement in the foreign exchange market. The sequence of impulses and corrections to them is the basic rule of trend movement. The levels of support and resistance are inextricably linked with the trend and are built on the Highs and Lows, which arise as a result of impulses and correction of trend movement. Once we use the concept of trend, we must have a mechanism for determining the direction of the trend.

They are visible to everyone, they are simply drawn and unambiguously interpreted. Long-term — blue, and medium-term — red. This simple technique of technical analysis allows us to analyze the situation on the market quite simply, to determine the direction of the trend and, accordingly, the most likely continuation of the movement of the price of the currency. A downward medium-term channel tells us that there is a correction to the main trend.

Approximation of the price to the lower boundary of the long-term ascending channel indicates the possibility of a trend change in case of a breakout and fixing the price below this limit. If you go to a lower timeframe — 4 hours or 1 hour, you can see and plot short-term channels and trend lines, which will give you a more accurate understanding of the situation and early entry into the market.

The most popular trend technical indicators are moving averages with periods of and It is believed that with the help of moving averages the most money was earned in the financial markets. The most common and popular option in the world is a simple moving average SMA. Look at any available terminals of leading analysts of the world — Bloomberg, Reuters and others, you will see the moving averages everywhere.

Put on our chart a simple moving average for periods of H4 and hours. In the event that the hour moving red is above SMA H4, this indicates an uptrend and vice versa. On the younger timeframes, hours and on the M5 can perfectly reflect the dynamics of the currency pair. However, each currency pair has its own specifics and it is necessary to select the moving averages for them and be sure to check on the history. Moving averages very often act as support and resistance levels for currency pairs at different timeframes.

However, we must not forget that the moving averages are a retarded technical indicator, and its lag increases with the increase in the timeframe and the averaging period. The intersection of moving averages is also a highly retarded indicator. Moving averages are trend indicators and they are useless in periods of flattening and consolidation, as it is at the moment.

The price simply fluctuates around SMA H4, while the sliding is located horizontally on the time axis. In such cases technical figures can help us. In my opinion, the most useful are the simplest figures — a triangle and a rectangle. For a very simple reason. In the case of a rectangle dark green in the graph , the upper and lower faces are the resistance and support levels, respectively. And at the triangle light green in the graph — the edges are trend lines.

This allows us to simplify the analysis, since we do not introduce new analytical elements, but only slightly different graphically reflect them on the price chart. And these figures are visible to all traders, even if they do not use these figures in their analysis. And only levels and trend lines are used.

In periods of flattening and consolidation, you can use oscillators. Also, a large group of information indicators can help you to manage the perception of market information. As a result of applying the simplest and most common technical methods and indicators, we have practically created a fully operational trading system. But do not forget that the correct application of methods of technical analysis is only one of the components of the success of trading on Forex.

Risk management, capital management and trading psychology are even more important for successful trading than technical analysis. Do not get carried away by a large number of technical indicators and more often use common sense and the KISS method. Whichever set of technical methods of analysis forex you would not have chosen for the analysis of the market, you must necessarily test them on the history for each currency pair and determine the most probable entry points.

And do not forget that the best technical indicator is the price itself. Keep track of the price, analyze it, look for analogies in history, study the dependencies and correlations of prices, monitor the reaction of prices to news events and decisions of central banks. Be careful and consistent — and the secrets of technical analysis of the foreign exchange market will be revealed to you.

Check your mailbox or spam to confirm your subscription. Your email address will not be published. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. The basis of technical analysis is three basic rules: The price includes all the factors that can affect it economic, political and psychological ; The movement of the price is subject to directed movements tendencies ; History has the property of repeating itself — the rules that have been in force in the past will continue to operate in the future.

The tasks of technical analysis are based on patterns in the past to determine, with a high degree of probability: the current state of the market — trend, flat or random; the direction of the most likely future movement of the currency or other asset; the best entry point to the market; the level of setting a stop-loss order or in other words, the price of the asset at which the analysis is considered to be erroneous. In Forex, the following types of currency prices are distinguished, which are reflected in the charts: opening prices open — prices for the beginning of the trading day or at the beginning of any trading period month, week, hour, minute, etc.

Candlestick analysis. The MetaTrader suite of trading platforms is regarded by many as the best software the trading world has to offer. With Admiral Markets, both demo and live account holders, have free access to the following MetaTrader trading software:. Whilst users can access all this technical analysis software by opening a demo or live trading account, there are some differences between the different platforms.

For example, the MetaTrader 4 platform has been the go-to platform for Forex technical analysis traders for many years. The MetaTrader 5 platform offers traders the chance to use their technical analysis skills on a higher number of markets, such as stocks, indices and commodities. Both these platforms and WebTrader already have specific technical analysis tools in them, which we will cover in more detail later in the article.

MetaTrader 4 is an elite trading platform that offers traders a range of exclusive benefits such as multi-language support, advanced charting capabilities, automated trading, the ability to fully customise and change the platform to suit your individual trading preferences, free real-time charting, trading news, technical analysis and so much more!

In the following sections, we will look at the four different types of technical analysis tools you can use to your advantage. We will then learn how to apply technical analysis for different markets such as Forex, Stocks, Indices, Commodities and Cryptocurrencies. The four different types of technical analysis tools are:.

It is recommended you download your MetaTrader platform, so that you can follow through on the technical analysis examples below. The first consideration on your path to becoming a technical analyst, is to decide which chart type to perform your technical analysis on. Whether it is stock market or Forex technical analysis, the same chart type can be used across different markets. Chart types include line, bar and candlestick.

Once you've downloaded your MetaTrader technical analysis software, you can switch between these different chart types by right clicking on an open chart and selecting from the three different options. Date Range: 21 May - 3 September A line chart simply connects the closing prices of the timeframe you are viewing. For example, when viewing a daily chart the line will connect the closing price of each trading day. Whether you are employing stock market or Forex technical analysis, traders mainly use line charts to identify long-term trends as it is the most basic type of chart available.

For example, when looking at the daily chart, each vertical bar represents one trading day. The bar chart presents much more information than the line chart. It shows us the open, high, low and close price values of the specific timeframe. Charts such as the OHLC bar chart help technical analysts identify whether buyers or sellers are in control of the market. Candlestick charts were first used by Japanese rice traders in the 18th century and they are the most popular type of chart for Forex technical analysis.

Similar to OHLC bars, candles also show the open, high, low and close values of a chosen time period. The major difference is that the candles have a box between the open and close price values known as the 'body' of the candle which is coloured in, usually either red or green.

Here, red indicates that the close price is lower than the open price, with green indicating the opposite. Many traders find candlesticks charts the most visually appealing, which is one of the reasons they are so popular in Forex technical analysis. The MetaTrader trading software comes with a wide variety of technical analysis tools, that can be used to help identify chart patterns.

They include drawing tools such as:. These can be found by selecting 'Insert' in the top menu, then 'Objects'. For example, let's take the popular technical analysis tool, the Equidistant Channel, which can be accessed as shown below:. Once this tool is selected, the user simply needs to connect the swing highs, or swings lows, of a price to draw in their channel pattern. This can be done by:. In the example below, you can see an ascending channel pattern and a sideways channel pattern, highlighted using this technical analysis tool.

Date Range: 8 March - 3 September There are many types of different chart patterns used by traders in their technical analysis. Sometimes what is best depends on the market being traded, for example, some chart patterns work better with Forex technical analysis, whilst others may be preferable for stock market technical analysis.

This will be covered in more detail later in the article. When it comes to candlestick charts, there are many different patterns which are used by traders in their technical analysis. Before we go through examples of patterns formed by candlesticks, let'e take a look at the two different types of candlestick. If you are viewing the daily timeframe in your price chart, then the above candles would each represent a full day's worth of trading and provides us with a lot of useful information, such as:.

This information can then be used, along with other technical analysis tools, to start building a picture of the market condition and the possible scenarios of what could happen next. For example:. There are a variety of different candle formations that are used in candlestick trading. One such pattern is called the Shooting Star:. The Shooting Star pattern is a bearish signal which suggests a higher probability of the market moving lower than higher. In this pattern, the buyers push the market to a new high but fail to hold price there.

Some buyers exit their long position, causing the market to fall lower, leading sellers to step into the market. Traditionally, the open and close of the candle body should be in the lower half of the candle. In the majority of cases above, the market did indeed go lower but in some cases, it went higher instead. A technical analyst would also draw upon other tools to build a complete picture on the market condition and identify possible areas to enter and exit.

Admiral Markets offers an enhanced version of MetaTrader that boosts trading capabilities? Now you can trade on MetaTrader 4 and MetaTrader 5 with an advanced version which offers excellent additional features such as the advanced technical analysis like the correlation matrix, which enables you to view and contrast various currency pairs in real-time, or the mini trader widget - which allows you to buy or sell via a small window while you continue with everything else you need to do.

Download it for FREE today by clicking the banner below! Technical analysis indicators are programmed with different formulas using the open, high, low and close price values of a specific time period. While most indicators are particularly popular in Forex technical analysis, volume indicators are more suited to markets which trade on an exchange due to the trading volume being the primary source of data for those indicators. Studies of the total traded volume are helpful to financial traders in the stock market, the futures market and the commodity market as the buy and sell prices from these markets go through one central exchange like the London Stock Exchange or Chicago Mercantile Exchange.

The Forex spot market is traded OTC Over-The-Counter so the total volume will be different from broker to broker depending on which banks and hedge funds they get their pricing feed from. This means that, for the Forex market, the technical indicators which use volume are only using a portion of the total volume. How much of the data is representative is up for debate. With such a wide variety of technical analysis indicators available, which ones to use may seem daunting at first.

But don't worry! We will be exploring the most commonly used indicators for different markets later on in the article. Immersing yourself in the trading world can help to accelerate your trading training and implementation of technical analysis in real-time situations. Seeing how professional traders view the markets can give you the confidence to go away, analyse and trade the market yourself using chart patterns and indicators. Admiral Markets offers three trading webinars a week that you can register to watch completely FREE in the Trading Spotlight webinar series.

Trading Spotlight features three professional traders on Mondays, Wednesdays and Fridays, taking a deep dive into the world's most popular trading topics and strategies, including Forex technical analysis. To gain your FREE access to these trading webinars, simply register by clicking on the banner below:. Now that you know more about chart patterns, candle patterns and indicators, let's take a look at applying technical analysis on a range of different markets, all of which are available to trade on with Admiral Markets.

The high liquidity of the Forex market attracts all types of traders, from scalpers to swing traders. Forex technical analysis is widely used by many of these different participants in the market. Let's have a look at one of the types of momentum indicators mentioned earlier and how it can be used in Forex technical analysis.

The Stochastic Oscillator is a very popular and widely used momentum indicator. It can be used to identify potential turning points in the market. So how is the Stochastic Oscillator used in Forex technical analysis?

While there are many ways it can be utilised, the most common use is to identify overbought and oversold markets. From this point, some traders may choose to wait for the lines to cross down below the 80 level and place an order to sell in anticipation the market will fall.

To place an order to sell, traders can either:. Once the trading ticket opens, traders can then input their trade details such as the type of order, volume, entry price, stop-loss and so on. Typically, traders will use the previous bar high and low values for entry price levels and stop-loss levels. Once the trader is happy with their trade values, clicking the 'place' button will create a live order.

The trading levels will now show as horizontal lines on the chart:. Cryptocurrencies such as Bitcoin and Ethereum are newer markets that are now widely available to trade on. In fact, with Admiral Markets you can trade on cryptocurrencies against the Euro 24 hours a day, seven days a week! While it is a newer market, cryptocurrency technical analysis still works well in the right market conditions. This is because chart patterns are still created from the buying and selling activity of traders in the market.

With cryptocurrency technical analysis, traders can use chart patterns, candlestick patterns or indicators. This is because it is a volatility indicator and the cryptocurrency market is highly volatile. To place the ATR indicator on your MetaTrader technical analysis software chart, follow these steps:.

Date Range: 18 January - 3 September Cryptocurrency traders using technical analysis would use this to identify periods of high volatility and periods of low volatility to help with placing stop-loss levels and take-profit levels. In times of high volatility, when the ATR is higher than usual or increasing, it means the daily bars are getting larger. Some traders may decide to go to the lower timeframes to capitalise on this volatility. Conversely, in times of low volatility, when the ATR is lower than usual or falling, it means the daily bars are getting smaller.

This in turn means traders may have to sit in trades for longer before they reach their target levels. Traditionally, stock market traders and investors have used fundamental analysis on whether to buy shares in a company. However, as the market now has a higher frequency of algorithmic traders using technical indicators and chart patterns, there are many more stock market traders using technical analysis than ever before. For example, many stock market traders like to see and trade on longer-term trends, often staying in moves for weeks or months.

The most commonly used tools are trend lines and horizontal lines which are forms of technical support and resistance. To access the free drawing tools in your MetaTrader platform simply click Insert from the top tabs in the platforms and then select Objects, Lines. To draw a trendline on, traders can simply click the trendline option.

The aim of a trendline in technical analysis is to connect the higher low cycles in an uptrend and the lower high cycles in a downtrend. Once the beginning points of these cycles have been determined, traders can left-click and hold down at the beginning of the first cycle and then, while holding down, drag the trendline to the next higher low cycle.

This will then draw on a line to produce a trendline where multiple bounces could occur. Date Range: 1 February - 3 September

Technical forex mathematical analysis of shark pattern harmonic trading forex

แนะนำหนังสือ สายเทคนิค ขั้นสูง !!!

Buy The Mathematics of Technical Analysis: Applying Statistics to Trading Stocks, Options and Futures on rchaz.xyz ✓ FREE SHIPPING on qualified orders. We will tell you about mathematical formulas, which any Forex trader You can read about this method of simple and efficient market analysis in our. In the technical analysis, the following basic methods for analyzing price movements are used: price movement principles, graphical analysis.