There are no normality and heteroskedasticity issues, and our model is stable. These diagnostic tests indicate that the model is correctly specified, that there is no serious flaw, and that the results are reliable. Table 6 shows the results of the standard Granger causality test, which indicates that GDP causes CO 2 emissions through unidirectional causality.
The exchange rate also causes CO 2 emissions and energy consumption which verifies our baseline NARDL findings and suggests that the exchange rate depreciation leads to an increase in CO 2 emissions and energy consumption in the country.
The casual linkages between exchange rate and GDP also confirm that exchange rate depreciation leads to an increase in production activities, leading to high energy consumption and CO 2 emissions in the country. This supports the validity of exchange rate depreciation linkage with CO 2 emissions and energy consumption and the country's expansionary effect of exchange rate depreciation. Various other studies support this finding, for example, Veganzones-Varoudakis , Kemal and Qadir , and Aman et al.
Similarly, the results are also in line with Soytas and Sari , Chaabouni and Saidi , Emirmahmutoglu and Kose , Xu et al. The production process contains energy consumption, which contributes to the CO 2 emissions in the country; the exchange rate is one of the main factors influencing the aggregate productivity, exports, industrial production and trade balance, etc. Therefore, the present study explores the connection between exchange rate depreciation, energy consumption, and CO 2 emissions in Pakistan from — We use three models for our analysis; CO 2 emissions, energy consumption, and GDP are the dependent variables, respectively.
The exchange rate is the independent variable, divided into positive and negative shocks in all models. We found a short-run and long-run association between exchange rate, CO 2 emissions, and GDP following an asymmetric framework. In addition, exchange positive shocks significantly increase CO 2 emissions, energy consumption, and GDP. In contrast, negative shocks significantly reduce the CO 2 emissions, energy consumption, and GDP, which indicates that the exchange rate is one of the main factors responsible for the CO 2 emissions and energy consumption, and positive association between exchange rate and GDP confirms that exchange rate depreciation increases the economic activities which consume high energy consumption.
It leads to CO 2 emission in the country. The result of this study suggests that exchange rate devaluation could be an important tool to achieve a high level of economic growth at the cost of high energy consumption and CO 2 emission in society. Therefore, this study suggests some policy implications. Firstly, the government needs to take steps for energy production demanded by industries because exports and local production may be adversely influenced by an energy shortage.
Secondly, proper legislation such as the corban tax may be a helpful tool to bring CO 2 emissions to the desired level. Thirdly, the government should seek alternate energy resources, like renewable energy resources, etc. The present study has limitations as it only covers a single country, which could be extended for many countries to test exchange rate CO 2 and energy consumption.
In addition, future research may include both aggregated and disaggregated levels of energy consumption to explore its connection with the country's GDP and the association of various modes of energy consumption with CO 2 emissions in the model. The raw data supporting the conclusion of this article will be made available by the authors, without undue reservation.
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Xu, S. Zhao, X. Zhou, C. Conservation Recycling , 1— The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author s and the copyright owner s are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms. Introduction The impact of exchange rate depreciation has been extensively examined with different macroeconomic variables, including gross domestic product per capita GDP growth, export, industrial production, current account deficit, etc.
Exchange rate and GDP. TABLE 1. ADF unit root. TABLE 2. TABLE 3. Short-run estimation. TABLE 4. Many of our ebooks are available through library electronic resources including these platforms:. Variations in the foreign exchange market influence all aspects of the world economy, and understanding these dynamics is one of the great challenges of international economics.
This book provides a new, comprehensive, and in-depth examination of the standard theories and latest research in exchange-rate economics. Covering a vast swath of theoretical and empirical work, the book explores established theories of exchange-rate determination using macroeconomic fundamentals, and presents unique microbased approaches that combine the insights of microstructure models with the macroeconomic forces driving currency trading.
Macroeconomic models have long assumed that agents—households, firms, financial institutions, and central banks—all have the same information about the structure of the economy and therefore hold the same expectations and uncertainties regarding foreign currency returns. Microbased models, however, look at how heterogeneous information influences the trading decisions of agents and becomes embedded in exchange rates. Replicating key features of actual currency markets, these microbased models generate a rich array of empirical predictions concerning trading patterns and exchange-rate dynamics that are strongly supported by data.
The models also show how changing macroeconomic conditions exert an influence on short-term exchange-rate dynamics via their impact on currency trading. Designed for graduate courses in international macroeconomics, international finance, and finance, and as a go-to reference for researchers in international economics, Exchange-Rate Dynamics guides readers through a range of literature on exchange-rate determination, offering fresh insights for further reading and research.
It will be a useful reference for those who want to understand standard theoretical models and empirical techniques, and for those who want to specialize in the microstructure of the foreign exchange markets. Sound and interesting, it provides a rigorous treatment of exchange-rate economics.
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Traders can profit by trading in national currencies of the world countries. On Forex, online exchange rates are presented in the form of pairs so that the rate of one currency is expressed in the number of units of the other.
You can see the current exchange rate of the dollar against the euro on Forex online below in the quotes chart. Monitor the current dynamics of exchange rates for all pairs and make the right trade decisions. In this section you will also be able to see online currency rates and the history of their changes on Forex over the past 2 years. Changes in the exchange rate on Forex are affected by a lot of factors. Among other things, one should take into account that some currency pairs correlate to each other.
To trade successfully, traders must pay attention to volatility, maximum activity periods of a particular currency pair, as well as fundamental and technical factors affecting the movement of the instrument. Successful analysis requires knowledge of the history of quotes of currency pairs, and that is why online charts of quotations of currency pairs are drawn.
Micro Approaches to Foreign Exchange Determination. Micro-based exchange-rate research examines the determination and behavior of spot exchange rates in an environment that replicates the key features of trading in the foreign exchange FX market. View 10 excerpts, cites background, results and methods. Microstructure analysis of price discovery, information-based trading and intervention in foreign exchange markets.
Motivated by the disconnection between dealer-level DL and market-level ML models, and the inadequacy of theoretical macro models in explaining the behaviour of the exchange rate, this thesis … Expand. In textbook models of exchange rate determination, the news contained in public information announcements is directly impounded into prices with there being no role for trading in this process of … Expand.
View 2 excerpts, cites background. Informed trade in spot foreign exchange markets: an empirical investigation. In a regime of floating FX rates and open economies, it is important to understand the way through which FX rates, volatility, and trading volume interrelate.
To uncover this, we provide a simple … Expand. View 2 excerpts, cites background and methods. Informativeness of trade size in foreign exchange markets. View 3 excerpts, cites background. This paper addresses whether transaction flows in foreign exchange markets convey information about fundamentals. We begin with a GE model in the spirit of Hayek in which fundamental … Expand. View 2 excerpts, cites methods and background.
We generalize the portfolio shifts model advanced by Evans and Lyons a; b , and develop the dynamic asymmetric portfolio shifts DAPS model by explicitly allowing for possible market under- and … Expand. Highly Influenced. View 11 excerpts, cites background, methods and results. What Drives Movements in Exchange Rates?
Understanding what causes the exchange rate to move has been on ongoing challenge for economists. Despite extensive research, traditional macro models of exchange rate determination--with the … Expand. View 1 excerpt, cites background. The Microstructure of Foreign Exchange Dynamics. This paper studies the high frequency behavior of the interbank foreign exchange market with a newly created data set that provides the most comprehensive picture of activity across the market in … Expand.
The behavior of quote arrivals and bid-ask spreads is examined for continuously recorded deutsche mark-dollar exchange rate data over time, across locations, and by market participants. A pattern in … Expand. We report findings from a survey of United States foreign exchange traders. Our results indicate that: i The share of customer business, versus interbank business, has remained fairly constant; … Expand. Empirical research on nominal exchange rates.
The Microstructure Approach to Exchange Rates. Historically, the fields of exchange-rate economics and microstructure finance have progressed independently of each other.