Chipre Forex Brokers - Bienvenidos a nuestra extensa lista de corredores de Forex regulados por Chipre. Hay ciertos riesgos asociados con el comercio de divisas, y si tiene alguna duda, debe tomar el asesoramiento de un asesor financiero independiente. Los errores y las omisiones pueden ocurrir en declaraciones hechas por, o opiniones expresadas por, autores individuales, y usted debe observar que FXHQ no y no ha verificado la exactitud o de otra manera de tales opiniones o declaraciones. Estoy realmente impresionado de sus habilidades educativas, ya que tienen sound mind investing promotion code manera eficaz *pelaburan forex 2012 ford* impartir conocimientos. Lee mas. Sin embargo, siempre quise ser parte de un equipo de la divisa con una buena estrategia para aumentar equidad. Lee mas ''.

But there is speculation that the bank, like many of its peers, is at least beginning to question the wisdom of an endless policy of money-printing and ultra-low interest rates that put persistent downwards pressure on the euro. That is leaving the euro positive on the non-dollar crosses. The dollar index was up 0. Another big element of the rise in the past fortnight has been a retreat in the yen from levels around per dollar.

The U. The dollar took support on Friday from strong U. Is there any smooth way to do this? Tags: None. Nick Cox. Columns is spreadsheet jargon for what Stata calls variables. Screenshots don't work well here and are not easy for people to use in replies. A data example posted with dataex would make a detailed reply easier and indeed more likely. Comment Post Cancel. Carlo Lazzaro. Sebastian: as Nick said, screenshots can only delay helpful replies.

That said, for calculations implying variables as well as observations , you may wantb to take a look at -help egen-. Sebastian Geiger. Sebastian, I'd say your dataset is not probably organized for what you're trying to do and for the use of Stata in general.

In a panel like your, the indicators should generally be the titles of the "columns" and the years should be in the the "rows". There may be applications where your data structure is appropriate, but for your calculation it is not. I agree with Nick that using -dataex- to post an excerpt from your dataset here would allow helping you more efficiently. Okay, here is the thing again with dataex: Code:. That helps, but in the example I see only one example of FOREX and the countries don't correspond to the rest of the data.

Perhaps you want something like Code:. Your solution works, but only if you remove the by option. What I used now specifically is: Code:. Originally posted by Nick Cox View Post. Economists joining the forum often seem to assume that everyone else is an economist, even their kind of economist, but that is not so! Nick: is right. Something like Code:.

What do they say of my own field? Mostly they don't think about it at all. But: Geography

William Lisowski. Welcome to Statalist. Presumably your data has a panel identifier, let us pretend it is called PanelID, and a year identifier, let us call it Year. Then you want to tell the genrate command to treat each panel separately, otherwise it will subtract data from the previous panel from observations in the current panel, which is why you are getting values for So something like the following might solve your problem.

Comment Post Cancel. Nick Cox. Excellent advice from William as always. Note further that once you have tsset or xtset the data, then Code:. Thank you Nick, my confusion about the statement of the problem led me to add the lag operator approach at the last minute, without thinking carefully. To Elena I would suggest especially looking at the full documentation for the xtset command which has examples of the good things that xtset makes possible.

Thank you so much for all answers. You are correct in saying that I am fairly new to stata, and especially to this forum. I have tsset the data using a panelid and year, and tried to review some of the previous FAQs but I guess I did not fully understand the logic behind the command I posted above, before now. Thank you again for the advice, I will look up the documentation suggested. Joan Marti. Hi, I am using panel data and am trying to generate a variable that is simply the first difference of another variable.

My panel variables are "country" and "year". I have tried everything I saw in this forum but I keep getting "60 missing values generated". Does anyone know what the problem is? Thank you very much! Eric de Souza. For results that you need to scroll, Stata asks you to click on see more output.

This makes it so it just pipes all the results to the display without you needing to click on anything. Now we will go on to a simulated example very similar to a difference in difference model I estimated recently. Because the working directory is set that already contains my datasets, I can just call:. To load up my simulated dataset. Before we estimate panel models in Stata, you need to tell Stata what the panel id variables refer to.

You use the tsset command for that. Here the variable Exper refers to a dummy variable that equals 1 for the experimental time series, and 0 for the control time series. Ord is a squential counter for each time period — here the data is suppossed to look like the count of crimes during the month over several years. So the first variable after tsset in the panel id, and the second refers to the time variable if there is a time variable. Now we are ready to estimate our model. In my real use case I had looked at the univariate series, and found that an ARIMA 1,0,0 model with monthly dummies to account for seasonality fit pretty well and took care of temporal auto-correlation, so I decided a reasonable substitute for the panel model would be a GEE Poisson model with monthly dummies and the errors having an AR 1 correlation.

So you can specify these as something like xtgee Y X, family poisson corr ar1 vce robust. The vce option is available for many of the panel data models. Note the bootstrap does not make sense when you only have two series as in this example. The Post variable is the dummy variable equal to 0 before the intervention, and 1 after the intervention.

Exper Post is one way to specify interaction variables in Stata. The variable i. Month tells Stata that the Month variable is a factor, and it should estimate a different dummy variable for each month dropping one to prevent perfect collinearity. Some models in Stata do not like the i. Factor notation, so a quick way to make all of the dummy variables is via tabulate Month, gen m. This would create variables m1, m2, m So now the fun part begins — trying to interpret the model.

Non-linear models — such as a Poisson regression — I think are almost always misleading to interpret the coefficients directly. Even exponentiating the coefficients so they are incident rate ratios I think tends to be misleading see this example. To solve this, I think the easiest solution is to just predict the model based outcome at different locations of the explanatory variables back on the original count scale.

This is what the margins post-estimation command does. So basically once you estimate a regression equation, Stata has many of its attributes accessible to subsequent command. What the margins command does is predict the value of Y at the 2 by 2 factor levels for Post and Exper.

The at base Month option says to estimate the effects at the base level of the Month factor, which happens to default to January here. The marginsplot shows this easier than I can explain. The option recast scatter draws the plot so there are no lines connecting the different points. Note I prefer to draw these error bar like plots without the end cross hairs, which can be done like marginsplot, recast scatter ciopts recast rspike , but this causes a problem when the error bars overlap.

So I initially interpreted this simply as the experimental series went down by around 2 crimes, and the control series went up by around 1 crime. A colleague though pointed out the whole point of having control series though is to say what would have happend if the intervention did not take place the counterfactual. Because the control series was going up, we would have also expected the experimental series to go up.

To estimate that relative decrease is somewhat convoluted in this parameterization, but you can use the test and lincom post-estimation commands to do it. Test basically does linear model restrictions for one or multiple variables. This can be useful to test if multiple coefficients are equal to one another, or joint testing to see if one coefficient is equal to another, or to test if a coefficient is different from a non-zero value.

So to test the relative decrease in this DiD setup ends up being which I am too lazy to explain :. The idea behind this is that it often does not make sense to test the significance of only one level of a dummy variable — you want to jointly test whether the whole set of dummy variables is statistically significant. Most of the time I do this using F-tests for model restrictions see this example in R. But here Stata does a chi-square test. I imagine they will result in the same inferences in most circumstances.

To do this you can use lincom. So working with my same set of variables I get:. I avoid explaining why this particular set of coefficient contrasts produces the relative decrease of interest because there is an easier way to specify the DiD model to get this coefficient directly see the Wikipedia page linked earlier for an explanation :. Which you can look at the output and see that the interaction term now recreates the same -. But we can do some more here, and figure out the hypothetical experimental mean if the experimental series would have followed the same trend as the control series.

Here I use nlcom and exponentiate the results to get back on the original count scale:. So in our couterfactual world, the intervention decreased crimes from around 12 to 6 per month instead of 8 to 6 in my original interpretation, a larger effect because of the control series. We can show how nlcom reproduces the output of margins by reproducing the experimental series mean at the baseline, over 8 crimes per month.

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The vce option is available for many of the panel data models. Note the bootstrap does not make sense when you only have two series as in this example. The Post variable is the dummy variable equal to 0 before the intervention, and 1 after the intervention. Exper Post is one way to specify interaction variables in Stata. The variable i. Month tells Stata that the Month variable is a factor, and it should estimate a different dummy variable for each month dropping one to prevent perfect collinearity.

Some models in Stata do not like the i. Factor notation, so a quick way to make all of the dummy variables is via tabulate Month, gen m. This would create variables m1, m2, m So now the fun part begins — trying to interpret the model. Non-linear models — such as a Poisson regression — I think are almost always misleading to interpret the coefficients directly. Even exponentiating the coefficients so they are incident rate ratios I think tends to be misleading see this example.

To solve this, I think the easiest solution is to just predict the model based outcome at different locations of the explanatory variables back on the original count scale. This is what the margins post-estimation command does. So basically once you estimate a regression equation, Stata has many of its attributes accessible to subsequent command. What the margins command does is predict the value of Y at the 2 by 2 factor levels for Post and Exper.

The at base Month option says to estimate the effects at the base level of the Month factor, which happens to default to January here. The marginsplot shows this easier than I can explain. The option recast scatter draws the plot so there are no lines connecting the different points. Note I prefer to draw these error bar like plots without the end cross hairs, which can be done like marginsplot, recast scatter ciopts recast rspike , but this causes a problem when the error bars overlap.

So I initially interpreted this simply as the experimental series went down by around 2 crimes, and the control series went up by around 1 crime. A colleague though pointed out the whole point of having control series though is to say what would have happend if the intervention did not take place the counterfactual. Because the control series was going up, we would have also expected the experimental series to go up. To estimate that relative decrease is somewhat convoluted in this parameterization, but you can use the test and lincom post-estimation commands to do it.

Test basically does linear model restrictions for one or multiple variables. This can be useful to test if multiple coefficients are equal to one another, or joint testing to see if one coefficient is equal to another, or to test if a coefficient is different from a non-zero value. So to test the relative decrease in this DiD setup ends up being which I am too lazy to explain :.

The idea behind this is that it often does not make sense to test the significance of only one level of a dummy variable — you want to jointly test whether the whole set of dummy variables is statistically significant. Most of the time I do this using F-tests for model restrictions see this example in R. But here Stata does a chi-square test.

I imagine they will result in the same inferences in most circumstances. To do this you can use lincom. So working with my same set of variables I get:. I avoid explaining why this particular set of coefficient contrasts produces the relative decrease of interest because there is an easier way to specify the DiD model to get this coefficient directly see the Wikipedia page linked earlier for an explanation :.

Which you can look at the output and see that the interaction term now recreates the same -. But we can do some more here, and figure out the hypothetical experimental mean if the experimental series would have followed the same trend as the control series. Here I use nlcom and exponentiate the results to get back on the original count scale:. So in our couterfactual world, the intervention decreased crimes from around 12 to 6 per month instead of 8 to 6 in my original interpretation, a larger effect because of the control series.

We can show how nlcom reproduces the output of margins by reproducing the experimental series mean at the baseline, over 8 crimes per month. Much of my experience suggests that although Poisson models are standard fare for predicting low crime counts in our field, they almost never make a difference when evaluating the marginal effects like I have above.

So here we can reproduce the same GEE model, but instead of Poisson have it be a linear model. Here I use the quietly command to suppress the output of the model. Comparing coefficients directly between the two models does not make sense, but comparing the predictions is fine. The predictions are very similar between the two models. I simply state this here because I think the parallel trends assumption for the DiD model makes more sense on a linear scale than it does for the exponential scale.

Pretty much wherever I look, the effects of explanatory variables appear pretty linear to me when predicting crime counts, so I think linear models make a lot of sense, even if you are predicting low count data, despite current conventions in the field. Long post — but stick with me!

The pdf help online has some examples — so this is pretty much just a restatement of the help. Like Andrew Gelman , I think the discrete bars are misleading when the sample locations are just arbitrary locations along a continuous function. I also think the areas look nicer, especially when the error bars overlap. And now to make our area chart at the sample points:.

That is much better looking that the default with the ugly cross-hair error bars overlapping. Modified 8 years, 2 months ago. Viewed 15k times. My approach is as follows. Any idea what could be the issue? Nick Cox Micha Micha 23 1 1 gold badge 2 2 silver badges 7 7 bronze badges. Stuff like "Thanks" or your signature should be left out of questions.

If you want to give personal information, edit your profile, e. Add a comment. Sorted by: Reset to default. Highest score default Date modified newest first Date created oldest first. Nick Cox Nick Cox Sign up or log in Sign up using Google. Sign up using Facebook.

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